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Polish and English diminutives i...

Polish and English diminutives in literary translation: Pragmatic and cross-cultural perspectives (ebook) Książka w języku angielskim

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Książka dotyczy tłumaczenia zdrobnień z języka polskiego i angielskiego na, odpowiednio, angielski i polski. Autorka rozważa kontekst pragmatyczny, kulturowy i socjolingwistyczny używania zdrobnień w obu językach, a także omawia językowe możliwości tworzenia zdrobnień poprzez mechanizmy analityczne i syntetyczne. Dotychczasowy stan badań wskazuje na potrzebę przeprowadzenia przekrojowej analizy zagadnień związanych ze zdrobnieniami, zwłaszcza dotyczących wpływu kultury na obecność tych elementów w języku. Podczas gdy wielu autorów omawiało procesy morfologiczne służące tworzeniu zdrobnień, mniej uwagi poświęcano problemom ekwiwalencji tłumaczeniowej zdrobnień, czy aspektom pragmatycznym ich zastosowania w konwersacji. Książka adresowana jest do językoznawców, teoretyków i praktyków translacji, badaczy styków kultury i języka oraz socjolingwistów.

Contents

 

Introduction / 9

1. Cultural influence on the usage of diminutives by the English and the Poles / 13

1.1 The problem of the definition of culture / 13

1.2 The interrelationship between culture and language / 14

1.3 Translating languages—Translating cultures / 14

1.4 The English and the Poles—Two different cultures, two different approaches to the use of diminutives / 16

1.4.1 The individualistic culture of Englishmen and its influence on the presence of diminutives in their language / 16

1.4.2 The collectivistic culture of Poles as a determinant of rich diminutive derivation in their language / 18

1.4.2.1 The exaggerated use of diminutives in Polish—Its reasons and consequences / 19

1.4.2.2 Diminutives as signs of infantilisation of Polish / 20

 

2. Comparison of linguistic means used to create diminutives in English and Polish / 23

2.1 Formation of diminutives in Polish / 23

2.2 Formation of diminutives in English / 28

 

3. Meanings of diminutives in English and Polish / 31

3.1 Different approaches to the prototypical meaning of diminutives / 32

3.2 The meanings of Polish diminutives / 33

3.3 The meanings of English diminutives / 39

 

4. Pragmatic functions of diminutives in language communication / 45

4.1 Diminutives and their relation with the concepts of face and politeness / 47

4.1.1 Leech’s Theory of Politeness / 48

4.1.2 Brown and Levinson’s Theory of Politeness / 49

4.2 Diminutives used in assertive acts / 50

4.3 Diminutives used in directive acts / 52

4.4 Diminutives used in commissive acts / 54

4.5 Diminutives used in expressive acts / 57

4.6 Diminutives used in vocative acts / 59

 

5. Sociolinguistic contexts of using diminutives in Polish and English / 65

5.1 Social context and its role in interpersonal communication / 65

5.2 Social relationships and the use of particular linguistic forms / 66

5.3 Classification of linguistic roles in conversation / 67

5.3.1 Diminutives used in a situation when the status of interlocutors is equal / 69

5.3.2 Diminutives used in a situation when the status of interlocutors is unequal / 71

 

6. Diminutives in translation into English and Polish / 75

6.1 The notion of untranslatability / 75

6.2 Principles of translation / 76

6.3 Levels of translation / 78

6.4 Translation of culture / 79

6.5 Difficulties in translation of diminutive forms / 79

6.6 Compensation and explicitation in translating diminutives into Polish / 81

6.7 Domestication and foreignisation in translating diminutives into Polish / 83

6.8 Translation methods for rendering the meanings of diminutives /84

 

7. The analysis of chosen examples from Polish and English literary texts and their translations / 87

7.1 The chosen Polish literary texts and their translations into English / 87

7.2 The chosen English literary texts and their translations into Polish / 90

7.3 The analysis of diminutives and their translation in different semantic, pragmatic, and sociolinguistic contexts / 91

7.3.1 Translation of meanings of diminutives / 91

7.3.1.1 Denotative meanings of diminutives / 92

7.3.1.2 Connotative meanings of diminutives / 107

7.3.1.3 Proverbs/sayings/fixed expressions / 140

7.3.2 Translation of pragmatic functions of diminutives / 143

7.3.2.1 Diminutives in assertive acts / 143

7.3.2.2 Diminutives in directive acts / 151

7.3.2.3 Diminutives in commissive acts / 155

7.3.2.4 Diminutives in expressive acts / 158

7.3.2.5 Diminutives in vocative acts / 160

7.3.3 Translation of sociolinguistic contexts of using diminutives / 164

 

8. Conclusions and final remarks / 167

 

Books under analysis / 187

References / 189

List of figures / 203

List of tables / 205

Резюме / 207

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